For its size, Iceland is a hotbed of scientific research, and U.S.-Iceland research cooperation is very active in a number of areas. Many U.S. and Icelandic academic researchers cooperate in a variety of medical fields. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) has committed significant financial resources to bilateral research with Iceland’s Heart Association, and has provided smaller grants to a number of other Icelandic medical researchers. Iceland’s location, straddling the Mid Atlantic Ridge, makes the country a virtual laboratory for examining the geological forces that are shaping our planet. U.S. agencies such as the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have taken a particular interest in conducting cooperative geosciences research in Iceland. Another area where our research communities have cooperated closely is the study of scientific, environmental and societal issues and developments affecting the Arctic region.